# RAIL SIMULATION

*Methodology follows standardized approach*

Our approach takes the standard methods to determine the speed, acceleration, time and distance for the trains.

The key inputs for the rolling stock (i.e., train set) are the maximum speed, acceleration and deceleration. For most train sets, the max speed can be easily found from websites of the manufacturers. Acceleration is somewhat difficult but some manufacturers provide it. Deceleration is the most difficult to obtain and we make assumptions based on the literation review that we have done.

The analysis simulates the movement of a train for every [10] meter intervals, calculates the speed and acceleration at the beginning and end of the interval, and continues with this till the end of the line is reached. Obviously, during this process we take into account the max permissible speed on the specific section of the track and if the train needs to slow down as a station or a curve is approaching.

Acceleration is assumed to be at the maximum level at start and reduce as the train increases speed, reaching 25% of maximum level by the time the train reaches its maximum speed. These are assumed characteristics. Please contact us if you want to change these parameters.

The figure below shows the speed and acceleration profile for a hypothetical train over a 25 km trip.

** Illustrative Speed and Acceleration Profile **

*Max. Speed: 250 kmph, Accel: 0.7 m/s/s, Decel: -0.4 m/s/s *

For the track itself, we use as input the station names, their distance from the initial station which is the 0 point), the max speed allowed in that section. stop time at the stations.

Finally, we need to know the service information. This defines the train set used, the stations served and the direction of the service (either from first station to the last, or vice-versa).

Run Model

# SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION

*A sophisticated decision making framework*

System optimization is a tool created for planners to evaluate different combinations of system elements to determine which combination provides the lowest cost, or the highest revenue, or both.

The framework provided allows for quite sophisticated calculations that not only look at
the initial costs but rather a full life cycle cost. Because of the scope of analysis is
quite broad, the data required for the analysis are quite involved as well. However, worry
not if do not have all the information. You can always zero one particular part of the analysis
(i.e., not consider it by providing 0 value to the inputs) or use the default values.

We use the discounted cash flow modeling and net present value approach to bring
all the future cost and revenue streams to a
common denominator thereby making the comparisons more meaningful.

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